In Japan, the Land Cruiser had a minor change in 2009 when it received the 4.6 L V8 1UR-FE engine and the gearbox was replaced with a 6-speed automatic.[37] Although the new 4608 cc 1UR-FE is smaller than the old 4663 cc 2UZ-FE engine, the power has been increased from 212 to 234 kW (288 to 318 PS; 284 to 314 hp), torque increased from 448 to 460 N⋅m (330 to 339 lb⋅ft) and fuel consumption improved from 6.6 to 7.1 km/L (19 to 20 mpg‑imp; 16 to 17 mpg‑US) (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).
The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since the vehicle's launch in 1998. The automotive press in Australia were critical of Toyota's decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine stated "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".
Imagine yourself shifting your sturdy truck into gear as you drive up a rugged dirt trail. Purchase your own 4X4 truck and experience fun adventures on almost any terrain. When searching for the vehicle of your choice, choose from a wide selection of models from brands like Dodge, Ford, Chevy, and Toyota. You can even look for specific models like the ever popular F150, Tundra, or Ram truck model. Or, check out the wide selection of vintage models available on eBay, sold by a variety of reliable sellers. When shopping for a new or used truck, consider the engine size, off-road capability, and cargo capacity for all the treasures you pick up along the way. Choose a pre-owned truck with decals and customized features, or build your own custom model starting with the color, year, and vehicle specs. Buy a body kit that turns a Jeep, GMC, or Ford truck into a conversation starter. Speaking of starters, if you already own your dream truck, you can shop for replacement parts (from bumper to fender) to help restore your four-wheeled beauty. Then, enjoy the elements and hit the open road.

As of 2009, Toyota officially lists approximately 70 different models sold under its namesake brand, including sedans, coupes, vans, trucks, hybrids, and crossovers.[191] Many of these models are produced as passenger sedans, which range from the subcompact Toyota Yaris, compact Corolla, to mid-size Camry and full-size Avalon.[191] Vans include the Previa/Estima, Sienna, and others.[191] Several small cars, such as the xB and tC, were sold under the Scion brand.[191]


There are two different levels of charging. Level one charging is the slower method as it uses a 120 V/15 A single-phase grounded outlet. Level two is a faster method; existing Level 2 equipment offers charging from 208 V or 240 V (at up to 80 A, 19.2 kW). It may require dedicated equipment and a connection installation for home or public units, although vehicles such as the Tesla have the power electronics on board and need only the outlet.[76] The optimum charging window for Lithium ion batteries is 3-4.2 V. Recharging with a 120 volt household outlet takes several hours, a 240 volt charger takes 1–4 hours, and a quick charge takes approximately 30 minutes to achieve 80% charge. Three important factors—distance on charge, cost of charging, and time to charge [77] In order for the hybrid to run on electrical power, the car must perform the action of braking in order to generate some electricity. The electricity then gets discharged most effectively when the car accelerates or climbs up an incline. In 2014, hybrid electric car batteries can run on solely electricity for 70–130 miles (110–210 km) on a single charge. Hybrid battery capacity currently ranges from 4.4 kWh to 85 kWh on a fully electric car. On a hybrid car, the battery packs currently range from 0.6 kWh to 2.4 kWh representing a large difference in use of electricity in hybrid cars.[78]
Commercial trucks in the US pay higher road use taxes on a state level than other road vehicles, and are subject to extensive regulation.[80] A few reasons commercial trucks pay higher road use taxes: they are bigger and heavier than most other vehicles, and cause more wear and tear per hour on roadways; and trucks and their drivers are on the road for more hours per day. Rules on use taxes differ among jurisdictions.

On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. announced the appointment of external board members; this was a first for the corporation and occurred following approval from general shareholders at a meeting on the same day. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of president.[15]
In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full-sized truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. Motor Trend named the Tundra "Truck of the Year", and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada, and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA, instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models—the Corolla and Yaris.

The life of a pavement is measured by the number of passes of a vehicle axle. It may be evaluated using the Load Equivalency Factor,[81] which states that the damage by the pass of a vehicle axle is proportional to the 4th power of the weight, so a ten-ton axle consumes 10,000 times the life of the pavement as a one-ton axle. For that reason, loaded trucks cost the same as thousands of cars in pavement costs, and are subject to higher taxes and highway tolls.[31][32]
The Toyota RAV4 EV Concept was released in September 2012.[154] The RAV4 EV was assembled at Toyota's facility in Woodstock, Ontario along with the regular gasoline version. Tesla built the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, and then shipped them to Canada.[155][156] The RAV4 EV was sold only in California, beginning with the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles/Orange County, and San Diego. Production was limited to 2,600 units during a three-year period.[157][158] As of 31 December 2015, a total of 2,340 RAV4 EVs were sold in the U.S. to retail customers.[159][160][161] Production ended in September 2014.[162]
In August 2015, Toyota launched an updated, face lifted version of the J200 Land Cruiser in Japan, which was later sold globally. The bew version includes a new 8-speed electronically controlled automatic transmission (ECT-i) for the 5.7 L 3UR-FE V8 petrol engine while other engine and transmission option remain unchanged. The front fascia, grill, headlamps (with daylight running lamps), rear tail lamps and bumpers were the main exterior highlights of the facelift.
In 2002, Toyota introduced Night View, the first worldwide series production active automotive night vision system, on the Toyota Landcruiser Cygnus or Lexus LX470. This system uses the headlight projectors emitting near infrared light aimed like the car's highbeam headlights and a CCD camera then captures that reflected radiation, this signal is then processed by a computer which produces a black-and-white image which is projected on the lower section of the windshield.[27] It was also the first Toyota vehicle with roll-over sensor and control logic[28]
Mark X, SAI, Mirai, Premio, Prius, Aqua, Belta, Mark X ZiO, Succeed, Ractis, Auris, Blade, GT-86, Porte, Harrier, Vanguard, Esquire, Rush, C-HR, Avensis, Alphard, Comfort, HiAce, ToyoAce, Tank, Sienta, Pixis Space, Mark II-Mark II Qualis-Mark II Blit, Corona, Corona EXiV, Corona Coupe, Corsa, Opa, Avalon, Progrès, Cami, ist, Platz, Soarer, Hilux, Cynos, Regius, Celsior, Origin, Caldina, Ipsum.

The word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea.[citation needed] Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos (τροχός), meaning "wheel", from trekhein (τρέχειν, "to run").
Current vehicle bodies are designed around the mechanicals of existing engine/transmission setups. It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. One research project's goal is to create a blank paper design new car, to maximize the packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle. All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. One design has claimed to return 130 mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car. The small hydraulic driving motors are incorporated within the wheel hubs driving the wheels and reversing to claw-back kinetic braking energy. The hub motors eliminates the need for friction brakes, mechanical transmissions, drive shafts and U joints, reducing costs and weight. Hydrostatic drive with no friction brakes are used in industrial vehicles.[44] The aim is 170 mpg in average driving conditions. Energy created by shock absorbers and kinetic braking energy that normally would be wasted assists in charging the accumulator. A small fossil fuelled piston engine sized for average power use charges the accumulator. The accumulator is sized at running the car for 15 minutes when fully charged. The aim is a fully charged accumulator which will produce a 0-60 mph acceleration speed of under 5 seconds using four wheel drive.[45][46][47]
1951 – In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that height. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.[9]
1967 – Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a "pig" or an "iron pig". The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase (at 2,700 mm (106 in)) and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
A 2009 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration report examined hybrid electric vehicle accidents that involved pedestrians and cyclists and compared them to accidents involving internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The findings showed that, in certain road situations, HEVs are more dangerous for those on foot or bicycle. For accidents where a vehicle was slowing or stopping, backing up, entering or leaving a parking space (when the sound difference between HEVs and ICEVs is most pronounced), HEVs were twice as likely to be involved in a pedestrian crash than ICEVs. For crashes involving cyclists or pedestrians, there was a higher incident rate for HEVs than ICEVs when a vehicle was turning a corner. But there was no statistically significant difference between the types of vehicles when they were driving straight.[62]
In the United States, a commercial driver's license is required to drive any type of commercial vehicle weighing 26,001 lb (11.8 t) or more.[62] The federal government regulates how many hours a driver may be on the clock, how much rest and sleep time is required (e.g., 11 hours driving/14 hours on-duty followed by 10 hours off, with a maximum of 70 hours/8 days or 60 hours/7 days, 34 hours restart )[63] Violations are often subject to significant penalties. Instruments to track each driver's hours must sometimes be fitted. In 2006, the US trucking industry employed 1.8 million drivers of heavy trucks.[64] There is a shortage of willing trained long distance truck drivers.[65]
The Toyota RAV4 EV Concept was released in September 2012.[154] The RAV4 EV was assembled at Toyota's facility in Woodstock, Ontario along with the regular gasoline version. Tesla built the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, and then shipped them to Canada.[155][156] The RAV4 EV was sold only in California, beginning with the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles/Orange County, and San Diego. Production was limited to 2,600 units during a three-year period.[157][158] As of 31 December 2015, a total of 2,340 RAV4 EVs were sold in the U.S. to retail customers.[159][160][161] Production ended in September 2014.[162]
Production of the first generation of the Land Cruiser began in 1951[2] as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle.[3][4] The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon and cab chassis bodystyles. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it is the best-selling body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.[5] Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback – considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.[6][7][8] In Japan, the Land Cruiser is exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships called Toyota Store.
Imagine yourself shifting your sturdy truck into gear as you drive up a rugged dirt trail. Purchase your own 4X4 truck and experience fun adventures on almost any terrain. When searching for the vehicle of your choice, choose from a wide selection of models from brands like Dodge, Ford, Chevy, and Toyota. You can even look for specific models like the ever popular F150, Tundra, or Ram truck model. Or, check out the wide selection of vintage models available on eBay, sold by a variety of reliable sellers. When shopping for a new or used truck, consider the engine size, off-road capability, and cargo capacity for all the treasures you pick up along the way. Choose a pre-owned truck with decals and customized features, or build your own custom model starting with the color, year, and vehicle specs. Buy a body kit that turns a Jeep, GMC, or Ford truck into a conversation starter. Speaking of starters, if you already own your dream truck, you can shop for replacement parts (from bumper to fender) to help restore your four-wheeled beauty. Then, enjoy the elements and hit the open road.
Regardless of name, these small trucks serve a wide range of uses. In Japan, they are regulated under the Kei car laws, which allow vehicle owners a break in taxes for buying a smaller and less-powerful vehicle (currently, the engine is limited to 660 cc displacement). These vehicles are used as on-road utility vehicles in Japan. These Japanese-made mini trucks that were manufactured for on-road use are competing with off-road ATVs in the United States, and import regulations require that these mini trucks have a 25 mph (40 km/h) speed governor as they are classified as low speed vehicles.[12] These vehicles have found uses in construction, large campuses (government, university, and industrial), agriculture, cattle ranches, amusement parks, and replacements for golf carts.[13]
The first sales channel established in 1946 is called "Toyota Store"[58] (トヨタ店 Toyota Mise) and offers large luxury sedans such as the Toyota Century and the Toyota Crown. In more recent years, the Toyota Store's line was expanded to include hybrid and alternate fuel vehicles. In 1955, the "Toyopet Store" (トヨペット店 Toyopetto-ten) arrived, originally established to sell the Toyota Corona and the Toyopet ToyoAce truck, and currently features mid-range models. (Toyota's five channel dealerships in Japan chronology in Japanese.)
The first published prototype of an SHB is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite[4] SHB with power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed and built a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" for his 1995 diploma thesis. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SHB and in 1998 modified a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). Until 2005 they built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.[5] In 1999 Harald Kutzke described an "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation.
There is also a heavy vehicle transmission condition for a license class HC, HR, or MC test passed in a vehicle fitted with an automatic or synchromesh transmission; a driver's license will be restricted to vehicles of that class fitted with a synchromesh or automatic transmission. To have the condition removed, a person needs to pass a practical driving test in a vehicle with non-synchromesh transmission (constant mesh or crash box).[60]
Toyota's first hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially, the Toyota Mirai (Japanese for "future"), was unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show.[181] In January 2015, it was announced that production of the Mirai fuel cell vehicle would increase from 700 units in 2015 to approximately 2,000 in 2016 and 3,000 in 2017.[182] Sales in Japan began on December 15, 2014, at a price of ¥6,700,000 (~US$57,400). The Japanese government plans to support the commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles with a subsidy of ¥2,000,000 (~US$19,600).[183] Retail sales in the U.S. began in August 2015 at a price of US$57,500 before any government incentives. Initially, the Mirai will only be available in California.[184][185] The market release in Europe is slated for September 2015, and initially will be available only in the UK, Germany, and Denmark, followed by other countries in 2017. Pricing in Germany starts at €60,000 (~US$75,140) plus VAT (€78,540).[186]
In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500,000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. It also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary, it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.[83]

In May 2010, Toyota launched a collaboration with Tesla Motors to create electric vehicles. Toyota agreed to purchase US$50 million of Tesla common stock subsequent to the closing of Tesla's planned initial public offering.[149] Toyota, with the assistance of Tesla, built 35 converted RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other power train components were supplied by Tesla Motors.[150][151] Four years later, Toyota, along with Daimler, began to unwind its position in Tesla.[152] Toyota and Daimler made more than $1 bln from the investment.[153]
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